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A boil-water advisory or boil-water order is a public health advisory or directive given by government or health authorities to consumers when a community's drinking water is, or could be, contaminated by pathogens.
Under a boil-water advisory (BWA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that water be brought to a rolling boil for one minute before it is consumed in order to kill protozoa, bacteria and viruses. At altitudes above 2,000 metres (6,600 ft), boiling should be extended to 3 minutes, as the lower boiling point at high altitudes requires more time to kill such organisms.
BWAs are typically issued when monitoring of water being served to consumers detects Escherichia coli or other microbiological indicators of sewage contamination. Another reason for a BWA is a failure of distribution system integrity evidenced by a loss of system pressure. While loss of pressure does not necessarily mean the water has been contaminated, it does mean that pathogens may be able to enter the piped-water system and thus be carried to consumers. In the United States, this has been defined as a drop below 20 pounds per square inch (140 kPa).
John Snow's 1849 recommendation that water be "filtered and boiled before it is used" is one of the first practical applications of the germ theory of disease in the area of public health and is the antecedent to the modern boil water advisory. Snow demonstrated a clear understanding of germ theory in his writings. He first published his theory in an 1849 essay On the Mode of Communication of Cholera, in which he correctly suggested that the fecal-oral route was the mode of communication, and that the disease replicated itself in the lower intestines. Snow later went so far as to accurately propose in his 1855 edition of the work that the structure of cholera was that of a cell. Snow's ideas were not fully accepted until years after his death. He died in 1858.
The first known modern Boil Water Advisory notice based solely on germ theory and unfettered by extraneous and irrelevant advice was distributed in 1866 during the last of three major cholera outbreaks that ravaged London in the 19th century.
FDA Issues Warning for Dog Food Brands Containing Toxic Levels of Vitamin D
More brands may be recalled as the FDA tests them
Published Dec 3, 2018 at 8:57 PM | Updated at 9:12 PM EST on Dec 3, 2018
Several popular brands of dry dog food have up to 70 times the safe levels of vitamin D and could kill dogs who eat them, the Food and Drug Administration warned Monday.
“Excess vitamin D in the diet can cause vomiting, loss of appetite, increased thirst, increased urination, excessive drooling and weight loss. Vitamin D at toxic levels can cause kidney failure and death. Pet owners whose dogs have been eating the recalled brands and are showing these symptoms should contact their veterinarians.”
The makers of at least 11 different dog food brands are recalling their products. The full list is available on the FDA website. Recalled brands include Nutrisca, Natural Life, Evolve, Sportsman’s Pride, Abound (sold at Kroger), and Nature’s Promise (sold at Giant and Stop & Shop), as well as others.
All the brands buy their products from the same manufacturer. “Pet owners should discontinue feeding these recalled products,” the FDA said. “At this time, the only pet products that have been impacted are food made for dogs.”
SEVERANCE, Colo. – Snowball fights are legal for the first time in decades after a nine-year-old decided it was time to change the law.
In the growing farming community between Greeley and Fort Collins, an ordinance from the 1920’s prohibits residents from throwing missiles at people, places or animals. Under the current definition, that includes snowballs.
“I thought it was crazy,” Dane Best said. “Little kids should be allowed to throw snowballs at each other.”
Best visited Town Hall on a class field trip where they learned about how Severance makes and changes laws. It was on this visit that he realized the municipal code contained a law that he considers outdated.
Best worked with Mayor Don McLeod and his parents to figure out what steps needed to be taken in order to exempt snowballs from the ordinance. On Monday, he gave a presentation to Trustees and a packed room explaining why he believes Severance needs to update its stance on snowballs.
“Kids need a reason to play outside,” he told the Board.
They voted unanimously to update the language to legalize snowball fights. Following the vote, Dane and his little brother each got a snowball to throw outside of Town Hall.
“You can make any change and it doesn’t require an age. Anybody can be involved in our democracy and anybody can make changes,” Mayor McLeod said.
According to Mayor McLeod, the “snowball ordinance” had never been enforced and no one had ever been cited for it.
Now that snowball fights are legal, he just asks anyone wishing to participate in a snowball fight makes sure there aren’t any rocks or ice chunks in the snow.
Mylan issues recall of blood pressure medications
Mylan has issued a nationwide recall of blood pressure medications which contain Valsartan.
According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, trace amounts of N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) has been discovered in the products. NDEA has been classified as a probable human carcinogen.
The following products have been recalled:
If you use these medications contact your pharmacist or physician. Do not stop taking your medication without speaking to your doctor first.